pH-Controlled Liposomes for Enhanced Cell Penetration in Tumor Environment

Publication year: 2018
Authors: Barattin M. 1, Mattarei A. 2, Balasso A. 1, Paradisi C. 2, Cantù L. 3, Del Favero E. 3, Viitala T. 4, Mastrotto F. 1, Caliceti P. 1, Salmaso S. 1
1 - Department of Pharmaceutical and Pharmacological SciencesUniversity of PadovaVia F. Marzolo 5, Padova 35131, Italy
2 - Department of Chemical SciencesUniversity of PadovaVia F. Marzolo 1, Padova 35131, Italy
3 - Department of Medical Biotechnologies and Traslational MedicineUniversity of MilanoLITA, Via F.lli Cervi, 93, Segrate20090, Italy
4 - Centre for Drug Research and Division of Pharmaceutical Biosciences, Faculty of PharmacyUniversity of HelsinkiViikinkaari 5, Helsinki FI-00014, Finland
Published in: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces, 2018, Vol. 10 (21), p. 17646–17661
doi: 10.1021/acsami.8b03469

An innovative pH-switchable colloidal system that can be exploited for site-selective anticancer drug delivery has been generated by liposome decoration with a new novel synthetic non-peptidic oligo-arginine cell-penetration enhancer (CPE) and a quenching PEGylated counterpart that detaches from the vesicle surface under the acidic conditions of tumors. The CPE module (Arg4-DAG) is formed by four arginine units conjugated to a first-generation (G1) 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA)/2,2-bis(aminomethyl)propionic acid (bis-AMPA) polyester dendron terminating with 1,2-distearoyl-3-azidopropane for liposome bilayer insertion. The zeta potential of the Arg4-DAG-decorated liposomes increased up to +32 mV as the Arg4-DAG/lipids molar ratio increased. The Arg4-DAG liposome shielding at pH 7.4 was provided by methoxy-PEG5 kDa-polymethacryloyl sulfadimethoxine (mPEG5 kDa-SDM8) with 7.1 apparent pKa. Zeta potential, surface plasmon resonance and synchrotron small-angle X-ray scattering analyses showed that at pH 7.4 mPEG5 kDa-SDM8 associates with polycationic Arg4-DAG-decorated liposomes yielding liposomes with neutral zeta potential. At pH 6.5, which mimics the tumor environment, mPEG5 kDa-SDM8 detaches from the liposome surface yielding Arg4-DAG exposure. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed a 30-fold higher HeLa cancer cell association of the Arg4-DAG-decorated liposomes compared to non-decorated liposomes. At pH 7.4, the mPEG5 kDa-SDM8-coated liposomes undergo low cell association while remarkable cell association occurred at pH 6.5, which allowed for the controlled intracellular delivery of model macromolecules and small molecules loaded in the liposome under tumor conditions.

MP-SPR keywords: affinity, cancer drug delivery, functionalization of drug delivery nanoparticles, immobilized liposomes, interaction in various pH conditions studied, pH sensitive polymer, polymer - liposome interaction