Grafting hyaluronic acid onto gold surface to achieve low protein fouling in surface plasmon resonance biosensors

Publication year: 2014
Authors: Liu X., Huang R., Su R., Qi W., Wang L., He Z.
Affiliations:

State Key Laboratory of Chemical Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Technology, and ‡School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tianjin University , Tianjin 300072, People's Republic of China

Published in: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 2014, Vol. 6(15), p. 13034-42
doi: 10.1021/am502921z

Antifouling surfaces capable of reducing nonspecific protein adsorption from natural complex media are highly desirable in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) biosensors. A new protein-resistant surface made through the chemical grafting of easily available hyaluronic acid (HA) onto gold (Au) substrate demonstrates excellent antifouling performance against protein adsorption. AFM images showed the uniform HA layer with a thickness of ∼10.5 nm on the Au surface. The water contact angles of Au surfaces decreased from 103° to 12° with the covalent attachment of a carboxylated HA matrix, indicating its high hydrophilicity mainly resulted from carboxyl and amide groups in the HA chains. Using SPR spectroscopy to investigate nonspecific adsorption from single protein solutions (bovine serum albumin (BSA), lysozyme) and complex media (soybean milk, cow milk, orange juice) to an HA matrix, it was found that ultralow or low protein adsorptions of 0.6-16.1 ng/cm(2) (e.g., soybean milk: 0.6 ng/cm(2)) were achieved on HA-Au surfaces. Moreover, anti-BSA was chosen as a model recognition molecule to characterize the immobilization capacity and the antifouling performance of anti-BSA/HA surfaces. The results showed that anti-BSA/HA sensor surfaces have a high anti-BSA loading of 780 ng/cm(2), together with achieving the ultralow (<3 ng/cm(2) for lysozyme and soybean milk) or low (<17 ng/cm(2) for cow milk and 10% blood serum) protein adsorptions. Additionally, the sensor chips also exhibited a high sensitivity to BSA over a wide range of concentrations from 15 to 700 nM. Our results demonstrate a promising antifouling surface using extremely hydrophilic HA as matrix to resist nonspecific adsorption from complex media in SPR biosensors.


MP-SPR keywords: antifouling surfaces, biosensor, bovine serum albumin (BSA), complex media (soy bean milk, cow milk, orange juice), hyaluronic acid (HA) surface, lysozyme, non-specific binding, protein adsorption, protein-resistant surface